Prenatal Infection and Schizophrenia: A Review of Epidemiologic and Translational Studies
An emerging literature from epidemiologic, clinical, and preclinical investigations has provided evidence that gestational exposure to infection contributes to the etiology of schizophrenia. In recent years, these studies have moved from ecologic designs, which ascertain infection based on epidemics in populations, to investigations that have capitalized on reliable biomarkers in individual pregnancies. These studies have documented specific candidate infections that appear to be associated with an elevated risk of schizophrenia. Animal models of maternal immune activation inspired by this work have revealed intriguing findings indicating behavioral, neurochemical, and neurophysiologic abnormalities consistent with observations in schizophrenia.